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Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences

In This Issue [This Week in PNAS]
Habitat degradation and coral reef fish behavior Degraded coral reef at Lizard Island. Widespread damage to coral reefs is exacerbated by the absence of fish communities that could potentially promote reef recovery. Reef fish populations rely on acoustic cues to guide habitat selection and settlemen...

Escherichia coli cultures maintain stable subpopulation structure during long...
How genetic variation is generated and maintained remains a central question in evolutionary biology. When presented with a complex environment, microbes can take advantage of genetic variation to exploit new niches. Here we present a massively parallel experiment where WT and repair-deficient (?mut...

Quantifying flow and stress in ice melange, the world’s largest granul...
Tidewater glacier fjords are often filled with a collection of calved icebergs, brash ice, and sea ice. For glaciers with high calving rates, this ?mélange? of ice can be jam-packed, so that the flow of ice fragments is mostly determined by granular interactions. In the jammed state, ice mélange has...

Genomic adaptation to drought in wild barley is driven by edaphic natural sel...
Ecological divergence at a microsite suggests adaptive evolution, and this study examined two abutting wild barley populations, each 100 m across, differentially adapted to drought tolerance on two contrasting soil types, Terra Rossa and basalt at the Tabigha Evolution Slope, Israel. We resequenced ...

Symbiont switching and alternative resource acquisition strategies drive mutu...
Cooperative interactions among species, termed mutualisms, have played a crucial role in the evolution of life on Earth. However, despite key potential benefits to partners, there are many cases in which two species cease to cooperate and mutualisms break down. What factors drive the evolutionary br...

CRISPR/Cas9-mediated genome editing in a reef-building coral [Genetics]
Reef-building corals are critically important species that are threatened by anthropogenic stresses including climate change. In attempts to understand corals? responses to stress and other aspects of their biology, numerous genomic and transcriptomic studies have been performed, generating a variet...

Mechanism for survival of homozygous nonsense mutations in the tumor suppress...
BRCA1 is essential for repair of DNA double-strand breaks by homologous recombination, and hence for survival. Complete loss of its function is lethal during early embryonic development. Patients who are compound heterozygous for BRCA1 truncating mutations and missense alleles that retain some DNA r...

Systematic analysis of copy number variation associated with congenital diaph...
Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH), characterized by malformation of the diaphragm and hypoplasia of the lungs, is one of the most common and severe birth defects, and is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. There is growing evidence demonstrating that genetic factors contribute to...

Less immune activation following social stress in rural vs. urban participant...
Urbanization is on the rise, and environments offering a narrow range of microbial exposures are linked to an increased prevalence of both physical and mental disorders. Human and animal studies suggest that an overreactive immune system not only accompanies stress-associated disorders but might eve...

Structured networks support sparse traveling waves in rodent somatosensory co...
Neurons responding to different whiskers are spatially intermixed in the superficial layer 2/3 (L2/3) of the rodent barrel cortex, where a single whisker deflection activates a sparse, distributed neuronal population that spans multiple cortical columns. How the superficial layer of the rodent barre...

Neuronal activity regulates neurotransmitter switching in the adult brain fol...
Neurotransmitter switching in the adult mammalian brain occurs following photoperiod-induced stress, but the mechanism of regulation is unknown. Here, we demonstrate that elevated activity of dopaminergic neurons in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PaVN) in the adult rat is required ...

Hidden collapse is driven by fire and logging in a socioecological forest eco...
Increasing numbers of ecosystems globally are at risk of collapse. However, most descriptions of terrestrial ecosystem collapse are post hoc with few empirically based examples of ecosystems in the process of collapse. This limits learning about collapse and impedes development of effective early-wa...

Correction for Sanjak et al., Evidence of directional and stabilizing selecti...
EVOLUTION Correction for ?Evidence of directional and stabilizing selection in contemporary humans,? by Jaleal S. Sanjak, Julia Sidorenko, Matthew R. Robinson, Kevin R. Thornton, and Peter M. Visscher, which was first published December 18, 2017; 10.1073/pnas.1707227114 (Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 115:1...

Invasive insect hybridizes with local pests [Population Biology]
?Be afraid, be very afraid!? Kate Jones warned me over coffee in London. She is an expert on global emergent diseases. Her work showed that new diseases are on the increase and that they usually originate from contact with wild animals as our species occupies and further exploits natural areas...

Recurrent structural variation, clustered sites of selection, and disease ris...
Structural variation and single-nucleotide variation of the complement factor H (CFH) gene family underlie several complex genetic diseases, including age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (AHUS). To understand its diversity and evolution, we performed high-qu...

Fully reduced HMGB1 accelerates the regeneration of multiple tissues by trans...
A major discovery of recent decades has been the existence of stem cells and their potential to repair many, if not most, tissues. With the aging population, many attempts have been made to use exogenous stem cells to promote tissue repair, so far with limited success. An alternative approach, which...

Descending pathway facilitates undulatory wave propagation in Caenorhabditis ...
Descending signals from the brain play critical roles in controlling and modulating locomotion kinematics. In the Caenorhabditis elegans nervous system, descending AVB premotor interneurons exclusively form gap junctions with the B-type motor neurons that execute forward locomotion. We combined gene...

Cognitive underpinnings of nationalistic ideology in the context of Brexit [P...
Nationalistic identities often play an influential role in citizens? voting behavior and political engagement. Nationalistic ideologies tend to have firm categories and rules for what belongs to and represents the national culture. In a sample of 332 UK citizens, we tested whether strict categorizat...

Sporadic sampling, not climatic forcing, drives observed early hominin divers...
The role of climate change in the origin and diversification of early hominins is hotly debated. Most accounts of early hominin evolution link observed fluctuations in species diversity to directional shifts in climate or periods of intense climatic instability. None of these hypotheses, however, ha...

Glassy dynamics of landscape evolution [Applied Physical Sciences]
Soil creeps imperceptibly downhill, but also fails catastrophically to create landslides. Despite the importance of these processes as hazards and in sculpting landscapes, there is no agreed-upon model that captures the full range of behavior. Here we examine the granular origins of hillslope soil t...

Social contagion of ethnic hostility [Economic Sciences]
Interethnic conflicts often escalate rapidly. Why does the behavior of masses easily change from cooperation to aggression? This paper provides an experimental test of whether ethnic hostility is contagious. Using incentivized tasks, we measured willingness to sacrifice one?s own resources to harm o...

Dome-headed, small-brained island mammal from the Late Cretaceous of Romania ...
The island effect is a well-known evolutionary phenomenon, in which island-dwelling species isolated in a resource-limited environment often modify their size, anatomy, and behaviors compared with mainland relatives. This has been well documented in modern and Cenozoic mammals, but it remains unclea...

Spatiotemporal encoding of search strategies by prefrontal neurons [Neuroscie...
Working memory is capacity-limited. In everyday life we rarely notice this limitation, in part because we develop behavioral strategies that help mitigate the capacity limitation. How behavioral strategies are mediated at the neural level is unclear, but a likely locus is lateral prefrontal cortex (...

Worldwide distribution of the DCDC2 READ1 regulatory element and its relation...
DCDC2 is a gene strongly associated with components of the phonological processing system in animal models and in multiple independent studies of populations and languages. We propose that it may also influence population-level variation in language component usage. To test this hypothesis, we inves...

Correction for Sheehan et al., Coevolution of landesque capital intensive agr...
ANTHROPOLOGY Correction for ?Coevolution of landesque capital intensive agriculture and sociopolitical hierarchy,? by Oliver Sheehan, Joseph Watts, Russell D. Gray, and Quentin D. Atkinson, which was first published March 19, 2018; 10.1073/pnas.1714558115 (Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 115:3628?3633). The ...

Correction for Gao et al., Chronic stress promotes colitis by disturbing the ...
IMMUNOLOGY AND INFLAMMATION Correction for ?Chronic stress promotes colitis by disturbing the gut microbiota and triggering immune system response,? by Xinghua Gao, Qiuhua Cao, Yan Cheng, Dandan Zhao, Zhuo Wang, Hongbao Yang, Qijin Wu, Linjun You, Yue Wang, Yanting Lin, Xianjing Li, Yun Wang, Jin-So...

How the manakin got its crown: A novel trait that is unlikely to cause specia...
In a fascinating study, Barrera-Guzmán et al. (1) demonstrate a hybrid origin for the golden-crowned manakin and describe a sexually dimorphic plumage trait derived in the hybrid lineage. However, their work stops short of showing that ?the evolution of this unique crown-color signal likely culminat...

Reply to Rosenthal et al.: Both premating and postmating isolation likely con...
In a recent letter to the editor, Rosenthal et al. (1) object to our proposal (2) that evolution of a unique male crown color in the avian hybrid species Lepidothrix vilasboasi might generate premating reproductive isolation from its parental species. Rosenthal et al.?s (1) key argument, derived fro...

Iron status as a confounder in the gender gap in survival under extreme condi...
Zarulli et al. (1) report on male?female survival differences in populations of slaves and populations exposed to severe famines and epidemics. Although the facts are clear and convincing, attention should be paid to the role of iron as a confounder in explaining the gender-based mortality differenc...

Reply to Delanghe et al.: Iron status is not likely to play a key role in the...
Females survive better than males in populations under stressful conditions, such as famines, epidemics, and slavery (1). Delanghe et al. (2) identify a biological mechanism that might partly explain this finding. They emphasize that women generally have smaller body iron stores than men, and theref...

QnAs with Donald Geman [QnAs]
With the proliferation of ?omics? technologies, personalized medicine?which tailors treatment to an individual?s genomic profile?promised a revolution in care. That revolution, says applied mathematician Donald Geman, has been slow to arrive. Geman has spent nearly four decades devising statistical ...

Horizontal transfer of retrotransposons between bivalves and other aquatic sp...
The LTR retrotransposon Steamer is a selfish endogenous element in the soft-shell clam genome that was first detected because of its dramatic amplification in bivalve transmissible neoplasia afflicting the species. We amplified and sequenced related retrotransposons from the genomic DNA of many othe...

Endoplasmic reticulum stress activates SRC, relocating chaperones to the cell...
The discovery that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) luminal chaperones such as GRP78/BiP can escape to the cell surface upon ER stress where they regulate cell signaling, proliferation, apoptosis, and immunity represents a paradigm shift. Toward deciphering the mechanisms, we report here that, upon ER str...

Hominin skeletal part abundances and claims of deliberate disposal of corpses...
Humans are set apart from other organisms by the realization of their own mortality. Thus, determining the prehistoric emergence of this capacity is of significant interest to understanding the uniqueness of the human animal. Tracing that capacity chronologically is possible through archaeological i...

Control of vacuole membrane homeostasis by a resident PI-3,5-kinase inhibitor...
Lysosomes have an important role in cellular protein and organelle quality control, metabolism, and signaling. On the surface of lysosomes, the PIKfyve/Fab1 complex generates phosphatidylinositol 3,5-bisphosphate, PI-3,5-P2, which is critical for lysosomal membrane homeostasis during acute osmotic s...

Muscularis macrophage development in the absence of an enteric nervous system...
The nervous system of the bowel regulates the inflammatory phenotype of tissue resident muscularis macrophages (MM), and in adult mice, enteric neurons are the main local source of colony stimulating factor 1 (CSF1), a protein required for MM survival. Surprisingly, we find that during development M...

Synthetically engineered Medea gene drive system in the worldwide crop pest D...
Synthetic gene drive systems possess enormous potential to replace, alter, or suppress wild populations of significant disease vectors and crop pests; however, their utility in diverse populations remains to be demonstrated. Here, we report the creation of a synthetic Medea gene drive system in a ma...

Mechanisms of sampling interstitial fluid from skin using a microneedle patch...
Although interstitial fluid (ISF) contains biomarkers of physiological significance and medical interest, sampling of ISF for clinical applications has made limited impact due to a lack of simple, clinically useful techniques that collect more than nanoliter volumes of ISF. This study describes expe...

Spatial and temporal heterogeneity of neural responses in human posteromedial...
Neuroimaging evidence supports a role of the default mode network (DMN) in spontaneous thought and goal-driven internally oriented processes, such as recalling an autobiographical event, and has demonstrated its deactivation during focused, externally oriented attention. Recent work suggests that th...

Individuals, institutions, and innovation in the debates of the French Revolu...
The French Revolution brought principles of ?liberty, equality, fraternity? to bear on the day-to-day challenges of governing what was then the largest country in Europe. Its experiments provided a model for future revolutions and democracies across the globe, but this first modern revolution had no...