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Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences

Reply to Candel et al.: Evidence for evolutionary conservation of folding kin...
The letter by Candel et al. (1) does not address a potential problem with their own experimental set-up. In particular, the use of guanidinium hydrochloride (GdnHCl) is not the best choice of denaturant for studying a folding reaction. There is an ample amount of evidence to suggest that the variati...

The wisdom of crowds for visual search [Psychological and Cognitive Sciences]
Decision-making accuracy typically increases through collective integration of people?s judgments into group decisions, a phenomenon known as the wisdom of crowds. For simple perceptual laboratory tasks, classic signal detection theory specifies the upper limit for collective integration benefits ob...

Shelterin components mediate genome reorganization in response to replication...
The dynamic nature of genome organization impacts critical nuclear functions including the regulation of gene expression, replication, and DNA damage repair. Despite significant progress, the mechanisms responsible for reorganization of the genome in response to cellular stress, such as aberrant DNA...

Microbiota promotes systemic T-cell survival through suppression of an apopto...
Symbiotic microbes impact the severity of a variety of diseases through regulation of T-cell development. However, little is known regarding the molecular mechanisms by which this is accomplished. Here we report that a secreted factor, Erdr1, is regulated by the microbiota to control T-cell apoptosi...

Metaplasticity mechanisms restore plasticity and associativity in an animal m...
Dynamic regulation of plasticity thresholds in a neuronal population is critical for the formation of long-term plasticity and memory and is achieved by mechanisms such as metaplasticity. Metaplasticity tunes the synapses to undergo changes that are necessary prerequisites for memory storage under p...

Preferences for group dominance track and mediate the effects of macro-level ...
Whether and how societal structures shape individual psychology is a foundational question of the social sciences. Combining insights from evolutionary biology, economy, and the political and psychological sciences, we identify a central psychological process that functions to sustain group-based hi...

Failure to replicate a genetic signal for sex bias in the steppe migration in...
Goldberg et al. (1) used genome-wide ancient DNA data (2) from central European Bronze Age (BA) populations and their three ancestral sources of steppe pastoralists (SP), Anatolian farmers (AF), and European hunter-gatherers (HG) to investigate whether the SP migration into central Europe after 5,00...

Pre/pro-B cells generate macrophage populations during homeostasis and inflam...
Most tissue-resident macrophages (M?s) are believed to be derived prenatally and are assumed to maintain themselves throughout life by self-proliferation. However, in adult mice we identified a progenitor within bone marrow, early pro-B cell/fraction B, that differentiates into tissue M?s. These M? ...

Structural variants caused by Alu insertions are associated with risks for ma...
Interspersed repeat sequences comprise much of our DNA, although their functional effects are poorly understood. The most commonly occurring repeat is the Alu short interspersed element. New Alu insertions occur in human populations, and have been responsible for several instances of genetic disease...

Suppressors and activators of JAK-STAT signaling at diagnosis and relapse of ...
Children with Down syndrome (DS) are prone to development of high-risk B-cell precursor ALL (DS-ALL), which differs genetically from most sporadic pediatric ALLs. Increased expression of cytokine receptor-like factor 2 (CRLF2), the receptor to thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), characterizes about...

Evolutionarily conserved TRH neuropeptide pathway regulates growth in Caenorh...
In vertebrates thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) is a highly conserved neuropeptide that exerts the hormonal control of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels as well as neuromodulatory functions. However, a functional equivalent in protostomian animals remains unknown, although TRH receptors ar...

Opposing roles of primate areas 25 and 32 and their putative rodent homologs ...
Disorders of dysregulated negative emotion such as depression and anxiety also feature increased cardiovascular mortality and decreased heart-rate variability (HRV). These disorders are correlated with dysfunction within areas 25 and 32 of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), but a causal rel...

A normalization model suggests that attention changes the weighting of inputs...
Models of divisive normalization can explain the trial-averaged responses of neurons in sensory, association, and motor areas under a wide range of conditions, including how visual attention changes the gains of neurons in visual cortex. Attention, like other modulatory processes, is also associated...

Vimentin fibers orient traction stress [Cell Biology]
The intermediate filament vimentin is required for cells to transition from the epithelial state to the mesenchymal state and migrate as single cells; however, little is known about the specific role of vimentin in the regulation of mesenchymal migration. Vimentin is known to have a significantly gr...

Explaining negative kin discrimination in a cooperative mammal society [Evolu...
Kin selection theory predicts that, where kin discrimination is possible, animals should typically act more favorably toward closer genetic relatives and direct aggression toward less closely related individuals. Contrary to this prediction, we present data from an 18-y study of wild banded mongoose...

High-density lipoprotein receptor SCARB1 is required for carotenoid coloratio...
Yellow, orange, and red coloration is a fundamental aspect of avian diversity and serves as an important signal in mate choice and aggressive interactions. This coloration is often produced through the deposition of diet-derived carotenoid pigments, yet the mechanisms of carotenoid uptake and transp...

Lsd1 prevents age-programed loss of beige adipocytes [Physiology]
Aging is accompanied by major changes in adipose tissue distribution and function. In particular, with time, thermogenic-competent beige adipocytes progressively gain a white adipocyte morphology. However, the mechanisms controlling the age-related transition of beige adipocytes to white adipocytes ...

Variation in the {beta}-endorphin, oxytocin, and dopamine receptor genes is a...
There is growing evidence that the number and quality of social relationships have substantial impacts on health, well-being, and longevity, and, at least in animals, on reproductive fitness. Although it is widely recognized that these outcomes are mediated by a number of neuropeptides, the roles th...

Optimal incentives for collective intelligence [Social Sciences]
Collective intelligence is the ability of a group to perform more effectively than any individual alone. Diversity among group members is a key condition for the emergence of collective intelligence, but maintaining diversity is challenging in the face of social pressure to imitate one?s peers. Thro...

Microglial NF{kappa}B-TNF{alpha} hyperactivation induces obsessive-compulsive...
Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is the second most common dementia before 65 years of age. Haploinsufficiency in the progranulin (GRN) gene accounts for 10% of all cases of familial FTD. GRN mutation carriers have an increased risk of autoimmune disorders, accompanied by elevated levels of tissue necr...

Density dependence in demography and dispersal generates fluctuating invasion...
Density dependence plays an important role in population regulation and is known to generate temporal fluctuations in population density. However, the ways in which density dependence affects spatial population processes, such as species invasions, are less understood. Although classical ecological ...

Correction to Supporting Information for Haynie and Bowern, Phylogenetic appr...
ANTHROPOLOGY Correction to Supporting Information for ?Phylogenetic approach to the evolution of color term systems,? by Hannah J. Haynie and Claire Bowern, which appeared in issue 48, November 29, 2016, of Proc Natl Acad Sci USA (113:13666?13671; first published November 14, 2016; 10.1073/pnas.1613...