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Reply to Charra et al.: Global longitudinal assessment of 2019 changes in def...
The concept of defined daily doses (DDDs) is rooted in the understanding that to assess drug utilization and to develop rational interventions at the patient level, a common framework for comparing varied sources and forms of drug utilization data are necessary (1?3). A primary aim of the WHO Collab...

Janzen’s mountain passes hypothesis is comprehensively tested in its f...
It is my intent to emphasize the concept that greater sensitivity to change is promoted by less frequent contact with that change. [Janzen (1)] Two hundred eleven years ago, Alexander von Humboldt returned to Europe from South America and began publishing accounts, maps, and diagrams that catalyzed ...

Ubiquilin 2 modulates ALS/FTD-linked FUS-RNA complex dynamics and stress gran...
The ubiquitin-like protein ubiquilin 2 (UBQLN2) has been genetically and pathologically linked to the neurodegenerative diseases amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD), but its normal cellular functions are not well understood. In a search for UBQLN2-interacting protei...

Loss of protein synthesis quality control in host-restricted organisms [Evolu...
Intracellular organisms, such as obligate parasites and endosymbionts, typically possess small genomes due to continuous genome decay caused by an environment with alleviated natural selection. Previously, a few species with highly reduced genomes, including the intracellular pathogens Mycoplasma an...

The CD4-CD8- MAIT cell subpopulation is a functionally distinct subset develo...
Mucosa-associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are unconventional innate-like T cells that recognize microbial riboflavin metabolites presented by the MHC class I-like protein MR1. Human MAIT cells predominantly express the CD8? coreceptor (CD8+), with a smaller subset lacking both CD4 and CD8 (double-n...

Genetic deletion of vesicular glutamate transporter in dopamine neurons incre...
A subset of midbrain dopamine (DA) neurons express vesicular glutamate transporter 2 (VgluT2), which facilitates synaptic vesicle loading of glutamate. Recent studies indicate that such expression can modulate DA-dependent reward behaviors, but little is known about functional consequences of DA neu...

Oscillating path between self-similarities in liquid pinch-off [Applied Physi...
Many differential equations involved in natural sciences show singular behaviors; i.e., quantities in the model diverge as the solution goes to zero. Nonetheless, the evolution of the singularity can be captured with self-similar solutions, several of which may exist for a given system. How to chara...

Dynamic effects of enforcement on cooperation [Economic Sciences]
In situations where social payoffs are not aligned with private incentives, enforcement with fines can be a way to sustain cooperation. In this paper we show, by the means of a laboratory experiment, that past fines can have an effect on current behavior even when no longer in force. We...

Testing the retroelement invasion hypothesis for the emergence of the ancestr...
Phylogenetic evidence suggests that the invasion and proliferation of retroelements, selfish mobile genetic elements that copy and paste themselves within a host genome, was one of the early evolutionary events in the emergence of eukaryotes. Here we test the effects of this event by determining the...

Narrow thermal tolerance and low dispersal drive higher speciation in tropica...
Species richness is greatest in the tropics, and much of this diversity is concentrated in mountains. Janzen proposed that reduced seasonal temperature variation selects for narrower thermal tolerances and limited dispersal along tropical elevation gradients [Janzen DH (1967) Am Nat 101:233?249]. Th...

Redox dysregulation as a link between childhood trauma and psychopathological...
Exposure to childhood trauma (CT) increases the risk for psychosis and affects the development of brain structures, possibly through oxidative stress. As oxidative stress is also linked to psychosis, it may interact with CT, leading to a more severe clinical phenotype. In 133 patients with early psy...

Generalizability of heterogeneous treatment effect estimates across samples [...
The extent to which survey experiments conducted with nonrepresentative convenience samples are generalizable to target populations depends critically on the degree of treatment effect heterogeneity. Recent inquiries have found a strong correspondence between sample average treatment effects estimat...

Opinion: Flood-risk reduction: Structural measures and diverse strategies [Su...
Floods continue to hit many countries, both less developed and industrialized, bringing human suffering and immense economic damage (see floodobservatory.colorado.edu/). Hurricane Florence and Typhoon Mangkhut were just the most recent reminders of the disruption that flooding can bring. Hence, stri...

Correction to Supporting Information for Kwon et al., Coiled-coil structure-d...
NEUROSCIENCE Correction to Supporting Information for ?Coiled-coil structure-dependent interactions between polyQ proteins and Foxo lead to dendrite pathology and behavioral defects,? by Min Jee Kwon, Myeong Hoon Han, Joshua A. Bagley, Do Young Hyeon, Byung Su Ko, Yun Mi Lee, In Jun Cha, Seung Yeol ...

Is failure to develop due to fundamentally different economic pathways or sim...
With development and stability teetering in many African and western Asian countries, new insights into barriers to development are always welcome. However, this field is full of false leads. One example is the recent claim of Cumming and von Cramon-Taubadel (1) that countries are attracted to one o...

Reply to O’Sullivan: Wicked problems demand sophisticated understandin...
O?Sullivan (1) both misunderstands and misrepresents our analysis (2). We tested, and found support for, the hypothesis that national economies tend toward one of two attractors because of complex feedbacks among ecosystem services, economic growth, and population growth. We then explored the possib...

Reply to Engelhardt et al.: Inclusive fitness does maintain a heritable altru...
Testing Hamilton?s rule (1) requires following a rigorous methodology, as stressed by us (2) and by Engelhardt et al. (3). Here, we would like to explain again how we did so. First, Engelhardt et al. (3) question the calculation of b and c. Our responses to their points are as...

Late Bronze Age cultural origins of dairy pastoralism in Mongolia [Anthropology]
Dairy products provide a substantial part of the food energy intake for many populations around the world. Fresh milk is an important source of many proteins (whey ?-lactoglobulin and caseins), fats, vitamin D, calcium, and electrolytes?but it has only a single carbohydrate, lactose (1). We can all ...

Autism in the broader context of cognitive sex differences [Psychological and...
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by difficulties with reciprocal social interactions, understanding and using (e.g., making eye contact) social cues, repetitive behaviors, and narrow interests (1). About 1% of individuals will meet current diagnostic criteria for ASD (2), with about a...

Bronze Age population dynamics and the rise of dairy pastoralism on the easte...
Recent paleogenomic studies have shown that migrations of Western steppe herders (WSH) beginning in the Eneolithic (ca. 3300?2700 BCE) profoundly transformed the genes and cultures of Europe and central Asia. Compared with Europe, however, the eastern extent of this WSH expansion is not well defined...

Klotho controls the brain-immune system interface in the choroid plexus [Neur...
Located within the brain?s ventricles, the choroid plexus produces cerebrospinal fluid and forms an important barrier between the central nervous system and the blood. For unknown reasons, the choroid plexus produces high levels of the protein klotho. Here, we show that these levels naturally declin...

Genetic and plastic variation in opsin gene expression, light sensitivity, an...
According to the sensory drive model, variation in visual properties can lead to diverse female preferences, which in turn results in a range of male nuptial colors by way of sexual selection. However, the cause of variation in visual properties and the mechanism by which variation drives female res...

Subspecialization within default mode nodes characterized in 10,000 UK Bioban...
The human default mode network (DMN) is implicated in several unique mental capacities. In this study, we tested whether brain-wide interregional communication in the DMN can be derived from population variability in intrinsic activity fluctuations, gray-matter morphology, and fiber tract anatomy. I...

Reply to Rogers and Gurau: Definitions of ionic liquids and deep eutectic sol...
Regarding classification of materials as ionic liquids (ILs) and deep eutectic solvents (DESs), Rogers and coworkers elegantly stated in their previous article (1) that the current definitions are based on extreme behaviors and the reality is somewhere in the middle. By definition, the behavior of I...

Evolution of bacterial trade in a two-species community [Evolution]
Our natural world is enriched by mutualisms, where organisms engage in a complex and often colorful trade of goods and services for their mutual benefit (Fig. 1D). An enduring question in evolutionary biology is how does this multispecies complexity emerge from simpler interactions? One-way benefici...

Evolution of weak cooperative interactions for biological specificity [Cell B...
A hallmark of biological systems is that particular functions and outcomes are realized in specific contexts, such as when particular signals are received. One mechanism for mediating specificity is described by Fisher?s ?lock and key? metaphor, exemplified by enzymes that bind selectively to a part...

Behavior-dependent cis regulation reveals genes and pathways associated with ...
Many behaviors are associated with heritable genetic variation [Kendler and Greenspan (2006) Am J Psychiatry 163:1683?1694]. Genetic mapping has revealed genomic regions or, in a few cases, specific genes explaining part of this variation [Bendesky and Bargmann (2011) Nat Rev Gen 12:809?820]. Howeve...

Oncogenic role of SFRP2 in p53-mutant osteosarcoma development via autocrine ...
Osteosarcoma (OS), the most common primary bone tumor, is highly metastatic with high chemotherapeutic resistance and poor survival rates. Using induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) generated from Li?Fraumeni syndrome (LFS) patients, we investigate an oncogenic role of secreted frizzled-related pr...

Quantifying resilience of humans and other animals [Medical Sciences]
All life requires the capacity to recover from challenges that are as inevitable as they are unpredictable. Understanding this resilience is essential for managing the health of humans and their livestock. It has long been difficult to quantify resilience directly, forcing practitioners to rely on i...

Evolution of bidirectional costly mutualism from byproduct consumption [Evolu...
Mutualisms are essential for life, yet it is unclear how they arise. A two-stage process has been proposed for the evolution of mutualisms that involve exchanges of two costly resources. First, costly provisioning by one species may be selected for if that species gains a benefit from costless bypro...

Unique pelvic fin in a tetrapod-like fossil fish, and the evolution of limb p...
All living tetrapods have a one-to-two branching pattern in the embryonic proximal limb skeleton, with a single element at the base of the limb (the humerus or femur) that articulates distally with two parallel radials (the ulna and radius or the tibia and fibula). This pattern is also seen in...

Inclusive fitness consequences of dispersal decisions in a cooperatively bree...
Natal dispersal is a demographic trait with profound evolutionary, ecological, and behavioral consequences. However, our understanding of the adaptive value of dispersal patterns is severely hampered by the difficulty of measuring the relative fitness consequences of alternative dispersal strategies...

The geographic mosaic of coevolution in mutualistic networks [Evolution]
Ecological interactions shape adaptations through coevolution not only between pairs of species but also through entire multispecies assemblages. Local coevolution can then be further altered through spatial processes that have been formally partitioned in the geographic mosaic theory of coevolution...

Functional connectivity in central executive network protects youth against c...
Although violent crime has declined in recent decades, it remains a recurring feature of daily life in some neighborhoods. Mounting evidence indicates that such violence has a long reach, which goes beyond family and friends of the victim and undermines the health of people in the surrounding commun...

Peculiarly pleasant weather for US maize [Sustainability Science]
Continuation of historical trends in crop yield are critical to meeting the demands of a growing and more affluent world population. Climate change may compromise our ability to meet these demands, but estimates vary widely, highlighting the importance of understanding historical interactions betwee...

A multiscale approach to balance trade-offs among dam infrastructure, river r...
Aging infrastructure and growing interests in river restoration have led to a substantial rise in dam removals in the United States. However, the decision to remove a dam involves many complex trade-offs. The benefits of dam removal for hazard reduction and ecological restoration are potentially off...