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Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences

In This Issue [This Week in PNAS]
Feasting and evolution of social complexity Artist?s rendering of congregants at Cerro del Gentil. Image courtesy of Robert Gutierrez (artist). Ritual feasting promoted cohesion and cooperation among early peoples, enabling nonstate societies, which lacked institutions such as markets, policing, and...

Feasting and the evolution of cooperative social organizations circa 2300 B.P...
Recent theoretical innovations in cultural evolutionary theory emphasize the role of cooperative social organizations that unite diverse groups as a key step in the evolution of social complexity. A principal mechanism identified by this theory is feasting, a strategy that reinforces norms of cooper...

Genetic dissection of neuropeptide cell biology at high and low activity in a...
Neuropeptides are ubiquitous modulators of behavior and physiology. They are packaged in specialized secretory organelles called dense core vesicles (DCVs) that are released upon neural stimulation. Unlike synaptic vesicles, which can be recycled and refilled close to release sites, DCVs must be rep...

Human impact on the diversity and virulence of the ubiquitous zoonotic parasi...
A majority of emerging infectious diseases in humans are zoonoses. Understanding factors that influence the emergence and transmission of zoonoses is pivotal for their prevention and control. Toxoplasma gondii is one of the most widespread zoonotic pathogens known today. Whereas only a few genotypes...

Ethological observations of social behavior in the operating room [Anthropology]
Operating rooms (ORs) are inhabited by hierarchical, mixed-gender clinical teams that are often prone to conflict. In evolutionary terms, one expects more within- than between-gender rivalries, especially since the OR is a place where all sorts of social interactions occur, not merely technical comm...

Ancient human parvovirus B19 in Eurasia reveals its long-term association wit...
Human parvovirus B19 (B19V) is a ubiquitous human pathogen associated with a number of conditions, such as fifth disease in children and arthritis and arthralgias in adults. B19V is thought to evolve exceptionally rapidly among DNA viruses, with substitution rates previously estimated to be closer t...

Adaptation aftereffects reveal representations for encoding of contingent soc...
A hallmark of human social behavior is the effortless ability to relate one?s own actions to that of the interaction partner, e.g., when stretching out one?s arms to catch a tripping child. What are the behavioral properties of the neural substrates that support this indispensable human skill? Here ...

Role for fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) in the leptin-mediated effects on ...
Endocannabinoid signaling regulates feeding and metabolic processes and has been linked to obesity development. Several hormonal signals, such as glucocorticoids and ghrelin, regulate feeding and metabolism by engaging the endocannabinoid system. Similarly, studies have suggested that leptin interac...

Repression of human and mouse brain inflammaging transcriptome by broad gene-...
Brain ?inflammaging,? a low-grade and chronic inflammation, is a major hallmark for aging-related neurodegenerative diseases. Here, by profiling H3K27ac and gene expression patterns in human and mouse brains, we found that age-related up-regulated (Age-Up) and down-regulated (Age-Down) genes have di...

Relational mobility predicts social behaviors in 39 countries and is tied to ...
Biologists and social scientists have long tried to understand why some societies have more fluid and open interpersonal relationships and how those differences influence culture. This study measures relational mobility, a socioecological variable quantifying voluntary (high relational mobility) vs....

Global hidden harvest of freshwater fish revealed by household surveys [Susta...
Consumption of wild-caught freshwater fish is concentrated in low-income countries, where it makes a critical contribution to food security and livelihoods. Underestimation of inland harvests in official statistics has long been suspected due to unmonitored subsistence fisheries. To overcome the lac...

Single-cell mutagenic responses and cell death revealed in real time [Genetics]
When musing about evolution, the physician and scientific essayist Lewis Thomas wrote, ?The capacity to blunder slightly is the real marvel of DNA. Without this special attribute, we would still be anaerobic bacteria and there would be no music? (1). Understanding how DNA mutations arise in cells, e...

Psychological health and socioeconomic status among non-Hispanic whites [Soci...
Much attention has been paid of late to drug abuse and mortality among less-educated whites. This group, often referred to as the ?white working class,? is typically defined as non-Hispanic whites who do not have Bachelor of Arts or Bachelor of Science college degrees (1). Mortality rates have risen...

PIP30/FAM192A is a novel regulator of the nuclear proteasome activator PA28{g...
PA28? is a nuclear activator of the 20S proteasome involved in the regulation of several essential cellular processes, such as cell proliferation, apoptosis, nuclear dynamics, and cellular stress response. Unlike the 19S regulator of the proteasome, which specifically recognizes ubiquitylated protei...

Real-time dynamics of mutagenesis reveal the chronology of DNA repair and dam...
Evolutionary processes are driven by diverse molecular mechanisms that act in the creation and prevention of mutations. It remains unclear how these mechanisms are regulated because limitations of existing mutation assays have precluded measuring how mutation rates vary over time in single cells. To...

Evolutionary genomic dynamics of Peruvians before, during, and after the Inca...
Native Americans from the Amazon, Andes, and coastal geographic regions of South America have a rich cultural heritage but are genetically understudied, therefore leading to gaps in our knowledge of their genomic architecture and demographic history. In this study, we sequence 150 genomes to high co...

Autoantibodies reactive to adrenocorticotropic hormone can alter cortisol sec...
Violent aggression in humans may involve a modified response to stress, but the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Here we show that naturally present autoantibodies reactive to adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) exhibit distinct epitope-binding profiles to ACTH peptide in subjects with ...

Piano training enhances the neural processing of pitch and improves speech pe...
Musical training confers advantages in speech-sound processing, which could play an important role in early childhood education. To understand the mechanisms of this effect, we used event-related potential and behavioral measures in a longitudinal design. Seventy-four Mandarin-speaking children aged...

Amyloid clearance defect in ApoE4 astrocytes is reversed by epigenetic correc...
Endosomes have emerged as a central hub and pathogenic driver of Alzheimer?s disease (AD). The earliest brain cytopathology in neurodegeneration, occurring decades before amyloid plaques and cognitive decline, is an expansion in the size and number of endosomal compartments. The strongest genetic ri...

Symmetric shear banding and swarming vortices in bacterial superfluids [Appli...
Bacterial suspensions?a premier example of active fluids?show an unusual response to shear stresses. Instead of increasing the viscosity of the suspending fluid, the emergent collective motions of swimming bacteria can turn a suspension into a superfluid with zero apparent viscosity. Although the ex...

Fisheries bycatch risk to marine megafauna is intensified in Lagrangian coher...
Incidental catch of nontarget species (bycatch) is a major barrier to ecological and economic sustainability in marine capture fisheries. Key to mitigating bycatch is an understanding of the habitat requirements of target and nontarget species and the influence of heterogeneity and variability in th...

Fast charging of lithium-ion batteries at all temperatures [Engineering]
Fast charging is a key enabler of mainstream adoption of electric vehicles (EVs). None of today?s EVs can withstand fast charging in cold or even cool temperatures due to the risk of lithium plating. Efforts to enable fast charging are hampered by the trade-off nature of a lithium-ion battery: Impro...

Changes in brain architecture are consistent with altered fear processing in ...
The most characteristic feature of domestic animals is their change in behavior associated with selection for tameness. Here we show, using high-resolution brain magnetic resonance imaging in wild and domestic rabbits, that domestication reduced amygdala volume and enlarged medial prefrontal cortex ...

Costs, needs, and integration efforts shape helping behavior toward refugees ...
Recent political instabilities and conflicts around the world have drastically increased the number of people seeking refuge. The challenges associated with the large number of arriving refugees have revealed a deep divide among the citizens of host countries: one group welcomes refugees, whereas an...

Declining mental health among disadvantaged Americans [Social Sciences]
Although there is little dispute about the impact of the US opioid epidemic on recent mortality, there is less consensus about whether trends reflect increasing despair among American adults. The issue is complicated by the absence of established scales or definitions of despair as well as a paucity...

Lack of group-to-individual generalizability is a threat to human subjects re...
Only for ergodic processes will inferences based on group-level data generalize to individual experience or behavior. Because human social and psychological processes typically have an individually variable and time-varying nature, they are unlikely to be ergodic. In this paper, six studies with a r...

Reproduction in the Baka pygmies and drop in their fertility with the arrival...
To understand the diversity of human growth and development from an evolutionary point of view, there is an urgent need to characterize the life-history variables of vanishing forager societies. The small body size of the Baka pygmies is the outcome of a low growth rate during infancy. While the age...

Indel-correcting DNA barcodes for high-throughput sequencing [Cell Biology]
Many large-scale, high-throughput experiments use DNA barcodes, short DNA sequences prepended to DNA libraries, for identification of individuals in pooled biomolecule populations. However, DNA synthesis and sequencing errors confound the correct interpretation of observed barcodes and can lead to s...

A versatile nanobody-based toolkit to analyze retrograde transport from the c...
Retrograde transport of membranes and proteins from the cell surface to the Golgi and beyond is essential to maintain homeostasis, compartment identity, and physiological functions. To study retrograde traffic biochemically, by live-cell imaging or by electron microscopy, we engineered functionalize...

Error-prone protein synthesis in parasites with the smallest eukaryotic genom...
Microsporidia are parasitic fungi-like organisms that invade the interior of living cells and cause chronic disorders in a broad range of animals, including humans. These pathogens have the tiniest known genomes among eukaryotic species, for which they serve as a model for exploring the phenomenon o...

Altering gain of the infralimbic-to-accumbens shell circuit alters economical...
The nucleus accumbens shell (NAcSh) is involved in reward valuation. Excitatory projections from infralimbic cortex (IL) to NAcSh undergo synaptic remodeling in rodent models of addiction and enable the extinction of disadvantageous behaviors. However, how the strength of synaptic transmission of th...

A nonequilibrium force can stabilize 2D active nematics [Applied Physical Sci...
Suspensions of actively driven anisotropic objects exhibit distinctively nonequilibrium behaviors, and current theories predict that they are incapable of sustaining orientational order at high activity. By contrast, here we show that nematic suspensions on a substrate can display order at arbitrari...

Genetic and developmental origins of a unique foraging adaptation in a Lake M...
Phenotypic novelties are an important but poorly understood category of morphological diversity. They can provide insights into the origins of phenotypic variation, but we know relatively little about their genetic origins. Cichlid fishes display remarkable diversity in craniofacial anatomy, includi...

Decimation by sea star wasting disease and rapid genetic change in a keystone...
Standing genetic variation enables or restricts a population?s capacity to respond to changing conditions, including the extreme disturbances expected to increase in frequency and intensity with continuing anthropogenic climate change. However, we know little about how populations might respond to e...

Genomic organization underlying deletional robustness in bacterial metabolic ...
Large-scale DNA deletions and gene loss are pervasive in bacterial genomes. This observation raises the possibility that evolutionary adaptation has altered bacterial genome organization to increase its robustness to large-scale tandem gene deletions. To find out, we systematically analyzed 55 bacte...

Human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived glial cells and neural progenitor...
Maternal Zika virus (ZIKV) infection during pregnancy is recognized as the cause of an epidemic of microcephaly and other neurological anomalies in human fetuses. It remains unclear how ZIKV accesses the highly vulnerable population of neural progenitors of the fetal central nervous system (CNS), an...

Coordinated prefrontal-hippocampal activity and navigation strategy-related p...
Learning the location of relevant places in the environment is crucial for survival. Such capacity is supported by a distributed network comprising the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus, yet it is not fully understood how these structures cooperate during spatial reference memory formation. Hence, w...

Serine metabolism in the brain regulates starvation-induced sleep suppression...
Sleep and metabolism are physiologically and behaviorally intertwined; however, the molecular basis for their interaction remains poorly understood. Here, we identified a serine metabolic pathway as a key mediator for starvation-induced sleep suppression. Transcriptome analyses revealed that enzymes...

Correction to Supporting Information for Rashidian et al., Noninvasive imagin...
IMMUNOLOGY AND INFLAMMATION Correction to Supporting Information for ?Noninvasive imaging of immune responses,? by Mohammad Rashidian, Edmund J. Keliher, Angelina M. Bilate, Joao N. Duarte, Gregory R. Wojtkiewicz, Johanne Tracey Jacobsen, Juanjo Cragnolini, Lee Kim Swee, Gabriel D. Victora, Ralph We...