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Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences

Reply to Rogers and Gurau: Definitions of ionic liquids and deep eutectic sol...
Regarding classification of materials as ionic liquids (ILs) and deep eutectic solvents (DESs), Rogers and coworkers elegantly stated in their previous article (1) that the current definitions are based on extreme behaviors and the reality is somewhere in the middle. By definition, the behavior of I...

Evolution of bacterial trade in a two-species community [Evolution]
Our natural world is enriched by mutualisms, where organisms engage in a complex and often colorful trade of goods and services for their mutual benefit (Fig. 1D). An enduring question in evolutionary biology is how does this multispecies complexity emerge from simpler interactions? One-way benefici...

Evolution of weak cooperative interactions for biological specificity [Cell B...
A hallmark of biological systems is that particular functions and outcomes are realized in specific contexts, such as when particular signals are received. One mechanism for mediating specificity is described by Fisher?s ?lock and key? metaphor, exemplified by enzymes that bind selectively to a part...

Behavior-dependent cis regulation reveals genes and pathways associated with ...
Many behaviors are associated with heritable genetic variation [Kendler and Greenspan (2006) Am J Psychiatry 163:1683?1694]. Genetic mapping has revealed genomic regions or, in a few cases, specific genes explaining part of this variation [Bendesky and Bargmann (2011) Nat Rev Gen 12:809?820]. Howeve...

Oncogenic role of SFRP2 in p53-mutant osteosarcoma development via autocrine ...
Osteosarcoma (OS), the most common primary bone tumor, is highly metastatic with high chemotherapeutic resistance and poor survival rates. Using induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) generated from Li?Fraumeni syndrome (LFS) patients, we investigate an oncogenic role of secreted frizzled-related pr...

Quantifying resilience of humans and other animals [Medical Sciences]
All life requires the capacity to recover from challenges that are as inevitable as they are unpredictable. Understanding this resilience is essential for managing the health of humans and their livestock. It has long been difficult to quantify resilience directly, forcing practitioners to rely on i...

Evolution of bidirectional costly mutualism from byproduct consumption [Evolu...
Mutualisms are essential for life, yet it is unclear how they arise. A two-stage process has been proposed for the evolution of mutualisms that involve exchanges of two costly resources. First, costly provisioning by one species may be selected for if that species gains a benefit from costless bypro...

Unique pelvic fin in a tetrapod-like fossil fish, and the evolution of limb p...
All living tetrapods have a one-to-two branching pattern in the embryonic proximal limb skeleton, with a single element at the base of the limb (the humerus or femur) that articulates distally with two parallel radials (the ulna and radius or the tibia and fibula). This pattern is also seen in...

Inclusive fitness consequences of dispersal decisions in a cooperatively bree...
Natal dispersal is a demographic trait with profound evolutionary, ecological, and behavioral consequences. However, our understanding of the adaptive value of dispersal patterns is severely hampered by the difficulty of measuring the relative fitness consequences of alternative dispersal strategies...

The geographic mosaic of coevolution in mutualistic networks [Evolution]
Ecological interactions shape adaptations through coevolution not only between pairs of species but also through entire multispecies assemblages. Local coevolution can then be further altered through spatial processes that have been formally partitioned in the geographic mosaic theory of coevolution...

Functional connectivity in central executive network protects youth against c...
Although violent crime has declined in recent decades, it remains a recurring feature of daily life in some neighborhoods. Mounting evidence indicates that such violence has a long reach, which goes beyond family and friends of the victim and undermines the health of people in the surrounding commun...

Peculiarly pleasant weather for US maize [Sustainability Science]
Continuation of historical trends in crop yield are critical to meeting the demands of a growing and more affluent world population. Climate change may compromise our ability to meet these demands, but estimates vary widely, highlighting the importance of understanding historical interactions betwee...

A multiscale approach to balance trade-offs among dam infrastructure, river r...
Aging infrastructure and growing interests in river restoration have led to a substantial rise in dam removals in the United States. However, the decision to remove a dam involves many complex trade-offs. The benefits of dam removal for hazard reduction and ecological restoration are potentially off...

In This Issue [This Week in PNAS]
Cesarean birth and brain development Dying neurons (black) in the hippocampus of a newborn mouse. Previous studies have reported behavioral and cognitive differences between children delivered vaginally versus by cesarean section (C-section), suggesting that birth mode affects brain development. How...

Consequences of cesarean delivery for neural development [Neuroscience]
For over 50 million years, every single mammal on Earth had to enter the world through a harrowing passage: the birth canal. The hazards of this journey, short in distance but potentially prolonged in duration, may have peaked in our own species, where the evolution of larger and larger brains...

microRNA-378 promotes autophagy and inhibits apoptosis in skeletal muscle [Ce...
The metabolic regulation of cell death is sophisticated. A growing body of evidence suggests the existence of multiple metabolic checkpoints that dictate cell fate in response to metabolic fluctuations. However, whether microRNAs (miRNAs) are able to respond to metabolic stress, reset the threshold ...

Role of sexual imprinting in assortative mating and premating isolation in Da...
Global biodiversity is being degraded at an unprecedented rate, so it is important to preserve the potential for future speciation. Providing for the future requires understanding speciation as a contemporary ecological process. Phylogenetically young adaptive radiations are a good choice for detail...

Switchable control over in vivo CAR T expansion, B cell depletion, and induct...
Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells with a long-lived memory phenotype are correlated with durable, complete remissions in patients with leukemia. However, not all CAR T cell products form robust memory populations, and those that do can induce chronic B cell aplasia in patients. To address thes...

Cell-autonomous requirement of TDP-43, an ALS/FTD signature protein, for olig...
TDP-43 aggregates in neurons and glia are the defining pathological hallmark of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD), raising the possibility of glial damage in the disease pathogenesis. However, the normal physiological functions of TDP-43 in glia are largely unknow...

Shear heating reconciles thermal models with the metamorphic rock record of s...
Some commonly referenced thermal-mechanical models of current subduction zones imply temperatures that are 100?500 C colder at 30?80-km depth than pressure?temperature conditions determined thermobarometrically from exhumed metamorphic rocks. Accurately inferring subduction zone thermal structure, ...

Engineering yeast endosymbionts as a step toward the evolution of mitochondri...
It has been hypothesized that mitochondria evolved from a bacterial ancestor that initially became established in an archaeal host cell as an endosymbiont. Here we model this first stage of mitochondrial evolution by engineering endosymbiosis between Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. An...

Functional structures of US state governments [Political Sciences]
Governments in modern societies undertake an array of complex functions that shape politics and economics, individual and group behavior, and the natural, social, and built environment. How are governments structured to execute these diverse responsibilities? How do those structures vary, and what e...

Role of income mobility for the measurement of inequality in life expectancy ...
This work proposes a method to compute the income gradient in period life expectancy that accounts for income mobility. Using income and mortality records of the Danish population over the period 1980?2013, we validate the method and provide estimates of the income gradient. The period life expectan...

Correction for Belsky et al., Genetic analysis of social-class mobility in fi...
SOCIAL SCIENCES Correction for ?Genetic analysis of social-class mobility in five longitudinal studies,? by Daniel W. Belsky, Benjamin W. Domingue, Robbee Wedow, Louise Arseneault, Jason D. Boardman, Avshalom Caspi, Dalton Conley, Jason M. Fletcher, Jeremy Freese, Pamela Herd, Terrie E. Moffitt, Ric...

Disease status affects the association between rs4813620 and the expression o...
Lorenzi et al. (1) recently applied a functional prioritization method to the Alzheimer?s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative dataset and successfully identified a link between tribbles pseudokinase 3 (TRIB3) and the stereotypical pattern of gray matter loss in Alzheimer?s disease (AD). Lorenzi et al. c...

The preregistration revolution needs to distinguish between predictions and a...
Nosek et al. (1) recently joined others in advocating for ?widespread adoption of preregistration? as a tool for advancing science. The language they use in making this important argument, however, creates unnecessary confusion: Like many others discussing these issues, they seem to conflate the goa...

Young children flexibly attribute mental states to others [Psychological and ...
Developmental social psychology has been in turmoil since 2005, when the first study using implicit, nonverbal measures with preverbal infants appeared to show that they could attribute false beliefs to other agents, forming expectations about an agent?s behavior on that basis (1). This was an excit...

Species groups distributed across elevational gradients reveal convergent and...
Although many cases of genetic adaptations to high elevations have been reported, the processes driving these modifications and the pace of their evolution remain unclear. Many high-elevation adaptations (HEAs) are thought to have arisen in situ as populations rose with growing mountains. In contras...

Isolation and characterization of NY-ESO-1-specific T cell receptors restrict...
Tumor-specific T cell receptor (TCR) gene transfer enables specific and potent immune targeting of tumor antigens. Due to the prevalence of the HLA-A2 MHC class I supertype in most human populations, the majority of TCR gene therapy trials targeting public antigens have employed HLA-A2?restricted TC...

Dopamine D2 receptor-mediated circuit from the central amygdala to the bed nu...
Impulsivity is closely associated with addictive disorders, and changes in the brain dopamine system have been proposed to affect impulse control in reward-related behaviors. However, the central neural pathways through which the dopamine system controls impulsive behavior are still unclear. We foun...

Coiled-coil structure-dependent interactions between polyQ proteins and Foxo ...
Neurodegenerative disorders, such as Huntington?s diseases and spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs), are driven by proteins with expanded polyglutamine (polyQ) tracts. Recently, coiled-coil structures in polyQ regions of such proteins were shown to facilitate aggregate formation and ultimately lead to cel...

Metabolic regulation of female puberty via hypothalamic AMPK-kisspeptin signa...
Conditions of metabolic distress, from malnutrition to obesity, impact, via as yet ill-defined mechanisms, the timing of puberty, whose alterations can hamper later cardiometabolic health and even life expectancy. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), the master cellular energy sensor activated in co...

Learning from failures of protocol in cross-cultural research [Colloquium Paper]
The many tools that social and behavioral scientists use to gather data from their fellow humans have, in most cases, been honed on a rarefied subset of humanity: highly educated participants with unique capacities, experiences, motivations, and social expectations. Through this honing process, rese...

Hominoid intraspecific cranial variation mirrors neutral genetic diversity [A...
Natural selection, developmental constraint, and plasticity have all been invoked as explanations for intraspecific cranial variation in humans and apes. However, global patterns of human cranial variation are congruent with patterns of genetic variation, demonstrating that population history has in...

Extensile motor activity drives coherent motions in a model of interphase chr...
The 3D spatiotemporal organization of the human genome inside the cell nucleus remains a major open question in cellular biology. In the time between two cell divisions, chromatin?the functional form of DNA in cells?fills the nucleus in its uncondensed polymeric form. Recent in vivo imaging experime...

Deep neural network improves fracture detection by clinicians [Computer Scien...
Suspected fractures are among the most common reasons for patients to visit emergency departments (EDs), and X-ray imaging is the primary diagnostic tool used by clinicians to assess patients for fractures. Missing a fracture in a radiograph often has severe consequences for patients, resulting in d...

Inner Workings: Hunting for microbial life throughout the solar system [Earth...
A robotic lander surveys a frosty landscape near the northern pole of Mars sometime in the 2020s. Revving up a powerful 1-meter drill, it bores into the polar subsurface, extracts a sample, and runs it through a battery of cleverly designed instruments. Maybe, just maybe, it uncovers the chemical re...

Physical interactions reduce the power of natural selection in growing yeast ...
Microbial populations often assemble in dense populations in which proliferating individuals exert mechanical forces on the nearby cells. Here, we use yeast strains whose doubling times depend differently on temperature to show that physical interactions among cells affect the competition between di...

Archaeorhynchus preserving significant soft tissue including probable fossili...
We describe a specimen of the basal ornithuromorph Archaeorhynchus spathula from the Lower Cretaceous Jiufotang Formation with extensive soft tissue preservation. Although it is the fifth specimen to be described, unlike the others it preserves significant traces of the plumage, revealing a pintail ...

Noggin rescues age-related stem cell loss in the brain of senescent mice with...
Increasing age is the greatest known risk factor for the sporadic late-onset forms of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer?s disease (AD). One of the brain regions most severely affected in AD is the hippocampus, a privileged structure that contains adult neural stem cells (NSCs) with neuro...

Pressing questions in the study of psychological and behavioral diversity [So...
Extreme biased sampling of research participants and the neglect of their cultural context are increasingly recognized as threats to the generalizability of much of what we know about human thought and behavior (1, 2). In addition to reinforcing narrow views of what it means to be human, these paroc...

Toward a psychology of Homo sapiens: Making psychological science more repres...
Two primary goals of psychological science should be to understand what aspects of human psychology are universal and the way that context and culture produce variability. This requires that we take into account the importance of culture and context in the way that we write our papers and in the...

Expanding the interpretive power of psychological science by attending to cul...
A lack of interpretive power (i.e., the ability to understand individuals? experiences and behaviors in relation to their cultural contexts) undermines psychology?s understanding of diverse psychological phenomena. Building interpretive power requires attending to cultural influences in research. We...

Should social scientists be distanced from or engaged with the people they st...
This commentary focuses on two important contrasts in the behavioral sciences: (i) default versus nondefault study populations, where default samples have been used disproportionately (for psychology, the default is undergraduates at major research universities), and (ii) the adoption of a distant v...