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Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences

Collaboration, conflict, and disconnect between psychologists and economists ...
In PNAS, Bruine de Bruin and Fischhoff (1) describe two collaborations of psychologists and economists in which they made the central contributions by psychologists. In both cases, the objective was to design survey questions that measure in probabilistic terms the expectations that individuals hold...

AMPK blocks starvation-inducible transgenerational defects in Caenorhabditis ...
Life history events, such as traumatic stress, illness, or starvation, can influence us through molecular changes that are recorded in a pattern of characteristic chromatin modifications. These modifications are often associated with adaptive adjustments in gene expression that can persist throughou...

Injury-stimulated and self-restrained BMP signaling dynamically regulates ste...
Many adult organs rely on resident stem cells to maintain homeostasis. Upon injury, stem cells increase proliferation, followed by lineage differentiation to replenish damaged cells. Whether stem cells also change division mode to transiently increase their population size as part of a regenerative ...

Receptor Mincle promotes skin allergies and is capable of recognizing cholest...
Sterile (noninfected) inflammation underlies the pathogenesis of many widespread diseases, such as allergies and autoimmune diseases. The evolutionarily conserved innate immune system is considered to play a key role in tissue injury recognition and the subsequent development of sterile inflammation...

New Middle Pleistocene hominin cranium from Gruta da Aroeira (Portugal) [Anth...
The Middle Pleistocene is a crucial time period for studying human evolution in Europe, because it marks the appearance of both fossil hominins ancestral to the later Neandertals and the Acheulean technology. Nevertheless, European sites containing well-dated human remains associated with an Acheule...

Specific deletion of LKB1/Stk11 in the Mullerian duct mesenchyme drives hyper...
Nearly all older men will experience lower urinary tract symptoms associated with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), the etiology of which is not well understood. We have generated Stk11CKO mice by conditional deletion of the liver kinase B1 (LKB1) tumor suppressor gene, Stk11 (serine threonine kin...

Sediment supply controls equilibrium channel geometry in gravel rivers [Earth...
In many gravel-bedded rivers, floods that fill the channel banks create just enough shear stress to move the median-sized gravel particles on the bed surface (D50). Because this observation is common and is supported by theory, the coincidence of bankfull flow and the incipient motion of D50 has bec...

Wettability effect on nanoconfined water flow [Engineering]
Understanding and controlling the flow of water confined in nanopores has tremendous implications in theoretical studies and industrial applications. Here, we propose a simple model for the confined water flow based on the concept of effective slip, which is a linear sum of true slip, depending on a...

B vitamins attenuate the epigenetic effects of ambient fine particles in a pi...
Acute exposure to fine particle (PM2.5) induces DNA methylation changes implicated in inflammation and oxidative stress. We conducted a crossover trial to determine whether B-vitamin supplementation averts such changes. Ten healthy adults blindly received a 2-h, controlled-exposure experiment to sha...

Selective dietary supplementation in early postpartum is associated with high...
Medical research is moving toward prevention strategies during prodromal states. Postpartum blues (PPB) is often a prodromal state for postpartum depression (PPD), with severe PPB strongly associated with an elevated risk for PPD. The most common complication of childbearing, PPD has a prevalence of...

Patterns of coordinated cortical remodeling during adolescence and their asso...
During adolescence, the human cortex undergoes substantial remodeling to support a rapid expansion of behavioral repertoire. Accurately quantifying these changes is a prerequisite for understanding normal brain development, as well as the neuropsychiatric disorders that emerge in this vulnerable per...

In This Issue [This Week in PNAS]
Enhanced vision may have enabled evolutionary shift from water to land Enlarged eyes may have aided vertebrates? shift from water to land. The origin of limbs in the evolutionary foray of vertebrates from water to land has long claimed researchers? interest, but the role of vision in this momentous ...

The depressed brain in Parkinson's disease: Implications for an inflammatory ...
The Need for a Biomarker in Parkinson's Disease Parkinson?s disease (PD) is an increasingly prevalent neurodegenerative disorder currently diagnosed solely on the presence of motor symptoms (i.e., tremor, rigidity, bradykinesia, and postural instability) and their response to dopamine replacement th...

Multisensor-integrated organs-on-chips platform for automated and continual i...
Organ-on-a-chip systems are miniaturized microfluidic 3D human tissue and organ models designed to recapitulate the important biological and physiological parameters of their in vivo counterparts. They have recently emerged as a viable platform for personalized medicine and drug screening. These in ...

SMN deficiency in severe models of spinal muscular atrophy causes widespread ...
Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), an autosomal recessive neuromuscular disease, is the leading monogenic cause of infant mortality. Homozygous loss of the gene survival of motor neuron 1 (SMN1) causes the selective degeneration of lower motor neurons and subsequent atrophy of proximal skeletal muscles....

Massive increase in visual range preceded the origin of terrestrial vertebrat...
The evolution of terrestrial vertebrates, starting around 385 million years ago, is an iconic moment in evolution that brings to mind images of fish transforming into four-legged animals. Here, we show that this radical change in body shape was preceded by an equally dramatic change in sensory abili...

Unified reduction principle for the evolution of mutation, migration, and rec...
Modifier-gene models for the evolution of genetic information transmission between generations of organisms exhibit the reduction principle: Selection favors reduction in the rate of variation production in populations near equilibrium under a balance of constant viability selection and variation pr...

Multiple origins of viral capsid proteins from cellular ancestors [Evolution]
Viruses are the most abundant biological entities on earth and show remarkable diversity of genome sequences, replication and expression strategies, and virion structures. Evolutionary genomics of viruses revealed many unexpected connections but the general scenario(s) for the evolution of the viros...

Myocardial aging as a T-cell-mediated phenomenon [Immunology and Inflammation]
In recent years, the myocardium has been rediscovered under the lenses of immunology, and lymphocytes have been implicated in the pathogenesis of cardiomyopathies with different etiologies. Aging is an important risk factor for heart diseases, and it also has impact on the immune system. Thus, we so...

Novel combinatorial screening identifies neurotrophic factors for selective c...
Numerous neurotrophic factors promote the survival of developing motor neurons but their combinatorial actions remain poorly understood; to address this, we here screened 66 combinations of 12 neurotrophic factors on pure, highly viable, and standardized embryonic mouse motor neurons isolated by a u...

Lys49 myotoxin from the Brazilian lancehead pit viper elicits pain through re...
Pain-producing animal venoms contain evolutionarily honed toxins that can be exploited to study and manipulate somatosensory and nociceptive signaling pathways. From a functional screen, we have identified a secreted phospholipase A2 (sPLA2)-like protein, BomoTx, from the Brazilian lancehead pit vip...

LIGO and the opening of a unique observational window on the universe [Perspe...
A unique window on the universe opened on September 14, 2015, with direct detection of gravitational waves by the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) detectors. This event culminated a half-century effort around the globe to develop terrestrial detectors of adequate s...

Hunter-gatherer residential mobility and the marginal value of rainforest pat...
The residential mobility patterns of modern hunter-gatherers broadly reflect local resource availability, but the proximate ecological and social forces that determine the timing of camp movements are poorly known. We tested the hypothesis that the timing of such moves maximizes foraging efficiency ...

Discovery of an endogenous Deltaretrovirus in the genome of long-fingered bat...
Retroviruses can create endogenous forms on infiltration into the germline cells of their hosts. These forms are then vertically transmitted and can be considered as genetic fossils of ancient viruses. All retrovirus genera, with the exception of deltaretroviruses, have had their representation iden...

Engineered erythrocytes covalently linked to antigenic peptides can protect a...
Current therapies for autoimmune diseases rely on traditional immunosuppressive medications that expose patients to an increased risk of opportunistic infections and other complications. Immunoregulatory interventions that act prophylactically or therapeutically to induce antigen-specific tolerance ...

Sensing of cell stress by human {gamma}{delta} TCR-dependent recognition of a...
Human ?? T cells comprise a first line of defense through T-cell receptor (TCR) recognition of stressed cells. However, the molecular determinants and stress pathways involved in this recognition are largely unknown. Here we show that exposure of tumor cells to various stress situations led to tumor...

mTORC1/2 inhibition preserves ovarian function and fertility during genotoxic...
The ovary contains oocytes within immature (primordial) follicles that are fixed in number at birth. Activation of follicles within this fixed pool causes an irreversible decline in reproductive capacity, known as the ovarian reserve, until menopause. Premenopausal women undergoing commonly used gen...

Neonatal CX26 removal impairs neocortical development and leads to elevated a...
Electrical coupling between excitatory neurons in the neocortex is developmentally regulated. It is initially prominent but eliminated at later developmental stages when chemical synapses emerge. However, it remains largely unclear whether early electrical coupling networks broadly contribute to neo...

Black-swan events in animal populations [Population Biology]
Black swans are improbable events that nonetheless occur?often with profound consequences. Such events drive important transitions in social systems (e.g., banking collapses) and physical systems (e.g., earthquakes), and yet it remains unclear the extent to which ecological population numbers buffer...

Neural basis of impaired safety signaling in Obsessive Compulsive Disorder [P...
The ability to assign safety to stimuli in the environment is integral to everyday functioning. A key brain region for this evaluation is the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC). To investigate the importance of vmPFC safety signaling, we used neuroimaging of Pavlovian fear reversal, a paradigm t...

Correction to Supporting Information for Kirby et al., Cumulative cultural ev...
PSYCHOLOGY, EVOLUTION Correction to Supporting Information for ?Cumulative cultural evolution in the laboratory: An experimental approach to the origins of structure in human language,? by Simon Kirby, Hannah Cornish, and Kenny Smith, which appeared in issue 31, August 5, 2008, of Proc Natl Acad Sci...

A neural model of valuation and information virality [Neuroscience]
Information sharing is an integral part of human interaction that serves to build social relationships and affects attitudes and behaviors in individuals and large groups. We present a unifying neurocognitive framework of mechanisms underlying information sharing at scale (virality). We argue that e...