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Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences

In This Issue [This Week in PNAS]
Human mobility in early Europe Burial of a nonlocal female in the Lech River valley area of southern Germany. Image courtesy of Stadtarchäologie Augsburg, Augsburg, Germany. Human mobility, which includes large-scale population replacements, during the Neolithic?Bronze Age transition in central Euro...

Rome’s urban history inferred from Pb-contaminated waters trapped in i...
Heavy metals from urban runoff preserved in sedimentary deposits record long-term economic and industrial development via the expansion and contraction of a city?s infrastructure. Lead concentrations and isotopic compositions measured in the sediments of the harbor of Ostia?Rome?s first harbor?show ...

Detection of immune responses after immunotherapy in glioblastoma using PET a...
Contrast-enhanced MRI is typically used to follow treatment response and progression in patients with glioblastoma (GBM). However, differentiating tumor progression from pseudoprogression remains a clinical dilemma largely unmitigated by current advances in imaging techniques. Noninvasive imaging te...

Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex GABA deficit in older adults with sleep-disord...
Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) is a common disorder in aging that is associated with cognitive decline, including significant executive dysfunction, for which the neurobiological underpinnings remain poorly understood. Using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS), this study assessed whet...

Temporal binding function of dorsal CA1 is critical for declarative memory fo...
Temporal binding, the process that enables association between discontiguous stimuli in memory, and relational organization, a process that enables the flexibility of declarative memories, are both hippocampus-dependent and decline in aging. However, how these two processes are related in supporting...

Belief in free will affects causal attributions when ȷudging others&#x...
Free will is a cornerstone of our society, and psychological research demonstrates that questioning its existence impacts social behavior. In six studies, we tested whether believing in free will is related to the correspondence bias, which reflects people?s automatic tendency to overestimate the in...

Hold the salt: Freshwater origin of primary plastids [Evolution]
The evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis by cyanobacteria was arguably one of the most significant biological events in Earth?s history, shaping the atmosphere and subsequently leading to diverse ecosystems (1). The permanent endosymbiotic merger between a cyanobacterium and a unicellular heterotrop...

Neanderthals and Denisovans as biological invaders [Anthropology]
Humans stand out among our close primate relatives as effective biological invaders. Our recent history has included range expansions into remote and harsh geographic regions, and invasions by some populations into areas long occupied by others. Historians tend to frame these events as a story of te...

Early photosynthetic eukaryotes inhabited low-salinity habitats [Evolution]
The early evolutionary history of the chloroplast lineage remains an open question. It is widely accepted that the endosymbiosis that established the chloroplast lineage in eukaryotes can be traced back to a single event, in which a cyanobacterium was incorporated into a protistan host. It is still ...

Human genetic variation in VAC14 regulates Salmonella invasion and typhoid fe...
Risk, severity, and outcome of infection depend on the interplay of pathogen virulence and host susceptibility. Systematic identification of genetic susceptibility to infection is being undertaken through genome-wide association studies, but how to expeditiously move from genetic differences to func...

Imaging the emergence and natural progression of spontaneous autoimmune diabe...
Type 1 diabetes in the nonobese diabetic mouse stems from an infiltration of the pancreatic islets by a mixed population of immunocytes, which results in the impairment and eventual destruction of insulin-producing ?-cells. Little is known about the dynamics of lymphocyte movement in the pancreas du...

Mechanisms of ovipositor insertion and steering of a parasitic wasp [Physiology]
Drilling into solid substrates with slender beam-like structures is a mechanical challenge, but is regularly done by female parasitic wasps. The wasp inserts her ovipositor into solid substrates to deposit eggs in hosts, and even seems capable of steering the ovipositor while drilling. The oviposito...

Reactive oxygen species extend insect life span using components of the insul...
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are well-known accelerants of aging, but, paradoxically, we show that physiological levels of ROS extend life span in pupae of the moth Helicoverpa armigera, resulting in the dormant state of diapause. This developmental switch appears to operate through a variant of th...

Early history of Neanderthals and Denisovans [Anthropology]
Extensive DNA sequence data have made it possible to reconstruct human evolutionary history in unprecedented detail. We introduce a method to study the past several hundred thousand years. Our results show that (i) the Neanderthal?Denisovan lineage declined to a small size just after separating from...

Generating gradient germanium nanostructures by shock-induced amorphization a...
Gradient nanostructures are attracting considerable interest due to their potential to obtain superior structural and functional properties of materials. Applying powerful laser-driven shocks (stresses of up to one-third million atmospheres, or 33 gigapascals) to germanium, we report here a complex ...

ER stress and distinct outputs of the IRE1{alpha} RNase control proliferation...
Oncogenic Ras causes proliferation followed by premature senescence in primary cells, an initial barrier to tumor development. The role of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and the unfolded protein response (UPR) in regulating these two cellular outcomes is poorly understood. During ER stress, the i...

Distribution of lifetime nursing home use and of out-of-pocket spending [Econ...
Reliable estimates of the lifetime risk of using a nursing home and the associated out-of-pocket costs are important for the saving decisions by individuals and families, and for the purchase of long-term care insurance. We used data on up to 18 y of nursing home use and out-of-pocket costs drawn...

Evidence for complex life cycle constraints on salamander body form diversifi...
Metazoans display a tremendous diversity of developmental patterns, including complex life cycles composed of morphologically disparate stages. In this regard, the evolution of life cycle complexity promotes phenotypic diversity. However, correlations between life cycle stages can constrain the evol...

Top-down modulation of sensory cortex gates perceptual learning [Neuroscience]
Practice sharpens our perceptual judgments, a process known as perceptual learning. Although several brain regions and neural mechanisms have been proposed to support perceptual learning, formal tests of causality are lacking. Furthermore, the temporal relationship between neural and behavioral plas...

Experimental and statistical reevaluation provides no evidence for Drosophila...
From 1980 to 1992, a series of influential papers reported on the discovery, genetics, and evolution of a periodic cycling of the interval between Drosophila male courtship song pulses. The molecular mechanisms underlying this periodicity were never described. To reinitiate investigation of this phe...

Reputation offsets trust judgments based on social biases among Airbnb users ...
To provide social exchange on a global level, sharing-economy companies leverage interpersonal trust between their members on a scale unimaginable even a few years ago. A challenge to this mission is the presence of social biases among a large heterogeneous and independent population of users, a fac...

Compounding effects of sea level rise and fluvial flooding [Sustainability Sc...
Sea level rise (SLR), a well-documented and urgent aspect of anthropogenic global warming, threatens population and assets located in low-lying coastal regions all around the world. Common flood hazard assessment practices typically account for one driver at a time (e.g., either fluvial flooding onl...

Correction for Koren and Feingold, Aerosol-cloud-precipitation system as a pr...
EARTH, ATMOSPHERIC, AND PLANETARY SCIENCES, POPULATION BIOLOGY Correction for ?Aerosol?cloud?precipitation system as a predator-prey problem,? by Ilan Koren and Graham Feingold, which was first published July 8, 2011; 10.1073/pnas.1101777108 (Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 108:12227?12232). The authors note...

Putting the network in network interventions [Social Sciences]
The article by Chami et al. (1) in PNAS provides another example of the potential effectiveness of using network theory and data to implement health-promoting interventions. There are many such examples across the health and medical literatures addressing a variety of health behaviors. While the stu...

Shared sociogenetic basis of honey bee behavior and human risk for autism [Ev...
We humans are great apes, but share a surprisingly extensive suite of traits with social insects as well as with primates (1). These overlapping human?insectan phenotypes, which include divisions of labor, alloparental care, extensive food sharing, group?colony structures, collective decision making...

Prospect theory and the decision to move or stay [Social Sciences]
Migration has always involved stress and risk. More risk-averse households are less likely to move, while less risk-averse households will seek out opportunities and migrate. We investigate how the theoretical contributions of prospect theory, and specifically the endowment effect, can provide new u...

Targeted PET imaging strategy to differentiate malignant from inflamed lymph ...
Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is the most common lymphoma in adults. DLBCL exhibits highly aggressive and systemic progression into multiple tissues in patients, particularly in lymph nodes. Whole-body 18F-fluodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography ([18F]FDG-PET) imaging has an essential ...

Indoles from commensal bacteria extend healthspan [Genetics]
Multiple studies have identified conserved genetic pathways and small molecules associated with extension of lifespan in diverse organisms. However, extending lifespan does not result in concomitant extension in healthspan, defined as the proportion of time that an animal remains healthy and free of...

Simple phalanx pattern leads to energy saving in cohesive fish schooling [App...
The question of how individuals in a population organize when living in groups arises for systems as different as a swarm of microorganisms or a flock of seagulls. The different patterns for moving collectively involve a wide spectrum of reasons, such as evading predators or optimizing food prospect...

Deep evolutionary conservation of autism-related genes [Evolution]
E. O. Wilson proposed in Sociobiology that similarities between human and animal societies reflect common mechanistic and evolutionary roots. When introduced in 1975, this controversial hypothesis was beyond science?s ability to test. We used genomic analyses to determine whether superficial behavio...

Sensitized mutagenesis screen in Factor V Leiden mice identifies thrombosis s...
Factor V Leiden (F5L) is a common genetic risk factor for venous thromboembolism in humans. We conducted a sensitized N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) mutagenesis screen for dominant thrombosuppressor genes based on perinatal lethal thrombosis in mice homozygous for F5L (F5L/L) and haploinsufficient for ...

Stalled replication forks generate a distinct mutational signature in yeast [...
Proliferating cells acquire genome alterations during the act of DNA replication. This leads to mutation accumulation and somatic cell mosaicism in multicellular organisms, and is also implicated as an underlying cause of aging and tumorigenesis. The molecular mechanisms of DNA replication-associate...

Locally embedded presages of global network bursts [Neuroscience]
Spontaneous, synchronous bursting of neural population is a widely observed phenomenon in nervous networks, which is considered important for functions and dysfunctions of the brain. However, how the global synchrony across a large number of neurons emerges from an initially nonbursting network stat...

Dynamic connectivity modulates local activity in the core regions of the defa...
Segregation and integration are distinctive features of large-scale brain activity. Although neuroimaging studies have been unraveling their neural correlates, how integration takes place over segregated modules remains elusive. Central to this problem is the mechanism by which a brain region adjust...

The 4E-BP growth pathway regulates the effect of ambient temperature on Droso...
Changes in body temperature can profoundly affect survival. The dramatic longevity-enhancing effect of cold has long been known in organisms ranging from invertebrates to mammals, yet the underlying mechanisms have only recently begun to be uncovered. In the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, this pro...

Asymmetries in behavioral and neural responses to spectral cues demonstrate t...
Studies of auditory looming bias have shown that sources increasing in intensity are more salient than sources decreasing in intensity. Researchers have argued that listeners are more sensitive to approaching sounds compared with receding sounds, reflecting an evolutionary pressure. However, these s...

Soil carbon debt of 12,000 years of human land use [Sustainability Science]
Human appropriation of land for agriculture has greatly altered the terrestrial carbon balance, creating a large but uncertain carbon debt in soils. Estimating the size and spatial distribution of soil organic carbon (SOC) loss due to land use and land cover change has been difficult but is a critic...

US cities can manage national hydrology and biodiversity using local infrastr...
Cities are concentrations of sociopolitical power and prime architects of land transformation, while also serving as consumption hubs of ?hard? water and energy infrastructures. These infrastructures extend well outside metropolitan boundaries and impact distal river ecosystems. We used a comprehens...