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Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences

Harmful algal blooms in the Eastern North Atlantic Ocean [Biological Sciences]
Applying a mathematical model to the period 1982?2016, in PNAS Gobler et al. (1) propose that ocean warming has expanded the niche for harmful algal blooms (HABs) of the species Dinophysis acuminata and Alexandrium fundyense, which can generate shellfish toxicity and pose risks to human health. The ...

How population growth relates to climate change [Sustainability Science]
Currently, around 7.5 billion people live on our planet and scenarios for the future show a plausible range from 8.5 to over 12 billion before the population will level off or start to decline, depending on the future course of fertility and mortality (1, 2). These people will also have...

Seasonally fluctuating selection can maintain polymorphism at many loci via s...
Most natural populations are affected by seasonal changes in temperature, rainfall, or resource availability. Seasonally fluctuating selection could potentially make a large contribution to maintaining genetic polymorphism in populations. However, previous theory suggests that the conditions for mul...

Electrical synapses mediate synergism between pheromone and food odors in Dro...
In Drosophila melanogaster, the sex pheromone produced by males, cis-vaccenyl acetate (cVA), evokes a stereotypic gender-specific behavior in both males and females. As Drosophila adults feed, mate, and oviposit on food, they perceive the pheromone as a blend against a background of food odors. Prev...

White blood cell population dynamics for risk stratification of acute coronar...
The complete blood count (CBC) provides a high-level assessment of a patient?s immunologic state and guides the diagnosis and treatment of almost all diseases. Hematology analyzers evaluate CBCs by making high-dimensional single-cell measurements of size and cytoplasmic and nuclear morphology in hig...

Sensing fluctuating airflow with spider silk [Applied Physical Sciences]
The ultimate aim of flow sensing is to represent the perturbations of the medium perfectly. Hundreds of millions of years of evolution resulted in hair-based flow sensors in terrestrial arthropods that stand out among the most sensitive biological sensors known, even better than photoreceptors which...

Impact of population growth and population ethics on climate change mitigatio...
Future population growth is uncertain and matters for climate policy: higher growth entails more emissions and means more people will be vulnerable to climate-related impacts. We show that how future population is valued importantly determines mitigation decisions. Using the Dynamic Integrated Clima...

Direct observation of impact propagation and absorption in dense colloidal mo...
Dense colloidal suspensions can propagate and absorb large mechanical stresses, including impacts and shocks. The wave transport stems from the delicate interplay between the spatial arrangement of the structural units and solvent-mediated effects. For dynamic microscopic systems, elastic deformatio...

Estimating mobility using sparse data: Application to human genetic variation...
Mobility is one of the most important processes shaping spatiotemporal patterns of variation in genetic, morphological, and cultural traits. However, current approaches for inferring past migration episodes in the fields of archaeology and population genetics lack either temporal resolution or forma...

Testing the neutral hypothesis of phenotypic evolution [Evolution]
Although evolution by natural selection is widely regarded as the most important principle of biology, it is unknown whether phenotypic variations within and between species are mostly adaptive or neutral due to the lack of relevant studies of large, unbiased samples of phenotypic traits. Here, we e...

Cooperative cortical network for categorical processing of Chinese lexical to...
In tonal languages such as Chinese, lexical tone with varying pitch contours serves as a key feature to provide contrast in word meaning. Similar to phoneme processing, behavioral studies have suggested that Chinese tone is categorically perceived. However, its underlying neural mechanism remains po...

Using neurostimulation to understand the impact of pre-morbid individual diff...
Neuropsychological data have proven invaluable in advancing our understanding of higher cognition. The interpretation of such data is, however, complicated by the fact that post-lesion behavioral abnormalities could reflect pre-morbid individual differences in the cognitive domain of interest. Here ...

In This Issue [This Week in PNAS]
Genomic history of Italian brown bears Apennine bear. Photo by Valentino Mastrella and image courtesy of Archive from the Abruzzo, Lazio e Molise National Park. Apennine bears are a critically endangered population of approximately 50 Italian brown bears that live in the central Apennine Mountains. ...

Phylogenomic red flags: Homology errors and zombie lineages in the evolutiona...
Phylogenomic studies can settle long-standing debates but should be scrutinized when well-established clades are contradicted and divergence dates are highly incompatible with the fossil record. Liu et al. (1) construct a species tree for Mammalia based on 4,388 protein-coding genes from 90 taxa to ...

Clinical validation of a nanodiamond-embedded thermoplastic biomaterial [Engi...
Detonation nanodiamonds (NDs) are promising drug delivery and imaging agents due to their uniquely faceted surfaces with diverse chemical groups, electrostatic properties, and biocompatibility. Based on the potential to harness ND properties to clinically address a broad range of disease indications...

Three-dimensional mesostructures as high-temperature growth templates, electr...
Recent work demonstrates that processes of stress release in prestrained elastomeric substrates can guide the assembly of sophisticated 3D micro/nanostructures in advanced materials. Reported application examples include soft electronic components, tunable electromagnetic and optical devices, vibrat...

Neurobiology of culturally common maternal responses to infant cry [Psycholog...
This report coordinates assessments of five types of behavioral responses in new mothers to their own infants? cries with neurobiological responses in new mothers to their own infants? cries and in experienced mothers and inexperienced nonmothers to infant cries and other emotional and control sound...

Survival and divergence in a small group: The extraordinary genomic history o...
About 100 km east of Rome, in the central Apennine Mountains, a critically endangered population of ?50 brown bears live in complete isolation. Mating outside this population is prevented by several 100 km of bear-free territories. We exploited this natural experiment to better understand the gene a...

Impact of climate change on New York City’s coastal flood hazard: Incr...
The flood hazard in New York City depends on both storm surges and rising sea levels. We combine modeled storm surges with probabilistic sea-level rise projections to assess future coastal inundation in New York City from the preindustrial era through 2300 CE. The storm surges are derived from large...

Unique growth strategy in the Earth’s first trees revealed in silicifi...
Cladoxylopsida included the earliest large trees that formed critical components of globally transformative pioneering forest ecosystems in the Mid- and early Late Devonian (ca. 393?372 Ma). Well-known cladoxylopsid fossils include the up to ?1-m-diameter sandstone casts known as Eospermatopteris fr...

Individual differences in associative memory among older adults explained by ...
Older adults experience impairments in episodic memory, ranging from mild to clinically significant. Given the critical role of the medial temporal lobe (MTL) in episodic memory, age-related changes in MTL structure and function may partially account for individual differences in memory. Using ultra...

Algorithm for cellular reprogramming [Systems Biology]
The day we understand the time evolution of subcellular events at a level of detail comparable to physical systems governed by Newton?s laws of motion seems far away. Even so, quantitative approaches to cellular dynamics add to our understanding of cell biology. With data-guided frameworks we can de...

Reported associations between receptor genes and human sociality are explaine...
Using a sample of 757 British individuals, Pearce et al. (1) tested 24 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in six candidate genes for association with eight social behavior traits. For each SNP for each trait, five genotypic model tests were reported (except the androgen receptor gene, for which ...

Reply to Jern et al.: On asking the right questions [Biological Sciences]
We are delighted that Jern et al. (1) share our interest in the psychopharmacological underpinnings of social behavior (2). It is a topic of growing interest and major significance. It is, however, important to correct some misunderstandings. First, we fully appreciate the concern about type I error...

Profile of Helen M. Blau [Profile]
The human ability to regenerate tissues is crucial to survival: wounds heal, broken bones knit, and livers regrow. However, the quality and length of life are constrained by limitations in this ability. Cardiac muscles do not regrow after infarction, and other damaged muscles rebuild with difficulty...

Early life experiences have complex and long-lasting effects on behavior [Evo...
Some animal behaviors, such as escape and courtship, are often genetically determined. However, many behaviors are heavily influenced by learning and experience. In particular, early life experiences can have a lasting impact on adult behavior. This developmental plasticity acts as a means of fine-t...

Across the tree of life, radiation resistance is governed by antioxidant Mn2+...
Despite concerted functional genomic efforts to understand the complex phenotype of ionizing radiation (IR) resistance, a genome sequence cannot predict whether a cell is IR-resistant or not. Instead, we report that absorption-display electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy of nonirradiat...

Hedgehog signaling regulates ciliary localization of mouse odorant receptors ...
The ciliary localization of odorant receptors (ORs) is evolutionary conserved and essential for olfactory transduction. However, how the transport of ORs is regulated in mammalian olfactory sensory neurons is poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that odorant responsiveness and OR transport is regu...

Cliff-edge model predicts intergenerational predisposition to dystocia and Ca...
Recently, we presented the cliff-edge model to explain the evolutionary persistence of relatively high incidences of fetopelvic disproportion (FPD) in human childbirth. According to this model, the regular application of Caesarean sections since the mid-20th century has triggered an evolutionary inc...

Entropy and optimality in river deltas [Earth, Atmospheric, and Planetary Sci...
The form and function of river deltas is intricately linked to the evolving structure of their channel networks, which controls how effectively deltas are nourished with sediments and nutrients. Understanding the coevolution of deltaic channels and their flux organization is crucial for guiding main...

High rate of translocation-based gene birth on the Drosophila Y chromosome [E...
The Y chromosome is a unique genetic environment defined by a lack of recombination and male-limited inheritance. The Drosophila Y chromosome has been gradually acquiring genes from the rest of the genome, with only seven Y-linked genes being gained over the past 63 million years (0.12 gene gains pe...

CREB coactivators CRTC2 and CRTC3 modulate bone marrow hematopoiesis [Immunol...
Populations of circulating immune cells are maintained in equilibrium through signals that enhance the retention or egress of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) from bone marrow (BM). Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) stimulates HSC renewal and engraftment through, for example, induction of the cAMP pathway. Tri...

Extensive flagellar remodeling during the complex life cycle of Paratrypanoso...
Paratrypanosoma confusum is a monoxenous kinetoplastid flagellate that constitutes the most basal branch of the highly diverse parasitic trypanosomatids, which include human pathogens Trypanosoma and Leishmania. This makes Paratrypanosoma uniquely informative for the evolution of obligatory parasiti...

Estradiol modulates the efficacy of synaptic inhibition by decreasing the dwe...
Estrogen plays a critical role in many physiological processes and exerts profound effects on behavior by regulating neuronal excitability. While estrogen has been established to exert effects on dendritic morphology and excitatory neurotransmission its role in regulating neuronal inhibition is poor...

Evolution of stochastic demography with life history tradeoffs in density-dep...
We analyze the stochastic demography and evolution of a density-dependent age- (or stage-) structured population in a fluctuating environment. A positive linear combination of age classes (e.g., weighted by body mass) is assumed to act as the single variable of population size, N, exerting density d...

Distress and rumor exposure on social media during a campus lockdown [Psychol...
During crisis events, people often seek out event-related information to stay informed of what is happening. However, when information from official channels is lacking or disseminated irregularly, people may be at risk for exposure to rumors that fill the information void. We studied information-se...

Marine mammal population decline linked to obscured by-catch [Sustainability ...
Declines of marine megafauna due to fisheries by-catch are thought to be mitigated by exclusion devices that release nontarget species. However, exclusion devices may instead conceal negative effects associated with by-catch caused by fisheries (i.e., unobserved or discarded by-catch with low postre...

Correction for Pereira et al., Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex GABA deficit in...
NEUROSCIENCE Correction for ?Dorsolateral prefrontal cortex GABA deficit in older adults with sleep-disordered breathing,? by Ana C. Pereira, Xiangling Mao, Caroline S. Jiang, Guoxin Kang, Sara Milrad, Bruce S. McEwen, Ana C. Krieger, and Dikoma C. Shungu, which was first published September 5, 2017...