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Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences

Gain control explains the effect of distraction in human perceptual, cognitiv...
When making decisions, humans are often distracted by irrelevant information. Distraction has a different impact on perceptual, cognitive, and value-guided choices, giving rise to well-described behavioral phenomena such as the tilt illusion, conflict adaptation, or economic decoy effects. However, ...

Altered ER-mitochondria contact impacts mitochondria calcium homeostasis and ...
Calcium (Ca2+) homeostasis is essential for neuronal function and survival. Altered Ca2+ homeostasis has been consistently observed in neurological diseases. How Ca2+ homeostasis is achieved in various cellular compartments of disease-relevant cell types is not well understood. Here we show in Droso...

Chemokine receptors CCR2 and CX3CR1 regulate viral encephalitis-induced hippo...
Viral encephalitis is a major risk factor for the development of seizures, epilepsy, and hippocampal damage with associated cognitive impairment, markedly reducing quality of life in survivors. The mechanisms underlying seizures and hippocampal neurodegeneration developing during and after viral enc...

Phylogenetic approach to recover integration dates of latent HIV sequences wi...
Given that HIV evolution and latent reservoir establishment occur continually within-host, and that latently infected cells can persist long-term, the HIV reservoir should comprise a genetically heterogeneous archive recapitulating within-host HIV evolution. However, this has yet to be conclusively ...

Molecular machines with bio-inspired mechanisms [Physical Sciences]
The widespread use of molecular-level motion in key natural processes suggests that great rewards could come from bridging the gap between the present generation of synthetic molecular machines?which by and large function as switches?and the machines of the macroscopic world, which utilize the synch...

Morphological transitions of elastic filaments in shear flow [Applied Physica...
The morphological dynamics, instabilities, and transitions of elastic filaments in viscous flows underlie a wealth of biophysical processes from flagellar propulsion to intracellular streaming and are also key to deciphering the rheological behavior of many complex fluids and soft materials. Here, w...

Genetic screen identifies adaptive aneuploidy as a key mediator of ER stress ...
The yeast genome becomes unstable during stress, which often results in adaptive aneuploidy, allowing rapid activation of protective mechanisms that restore cellular homeostasis. In this study, we performed a genetic screen in Saccharomyces cerevisiae to identify genome adaptations that confer resis...

A pan-mammalian map of interhemispheric brain connections predates the evolut...
The brain of mammals differs from that of all other vertebrates, in having a six-layered neocortex that is extensively interconnected within and between hemispheres. Interhemispheric connections are conveyed through the anterior commissure in egg-laying monotremes and marsupials, whereas eutherians ...

Perspective taking can promote short-term inclusionary behavior toward Syrian...
Social scientists have shown how easily individuals are moved to exclude outgroup members. Can we foster inclusion instead? This study leverages one of the most significant humanitarian crises of our time to test whether, and under what conditions, American citizens adopt more inclusionary behavior ...

In This Issue [This Week in PNAS]
Countries? adaptation to population aging Aging and adaptation. Image courtesy of iStock/monkeybusinessimages. Around the world, the proportion of elderly adults in the population is increasing, and failure to adapt to this demographic transformation poses financial and social risks. Cynthia Chen et...

History of art paintings through the lens of entropy and complexity [Applied ...
Art is the ultimate expression of human creativity that is deeply influenced by the philosophy and culture of the corresponding historical epoch. The quantitative analysis of art is therefore essential for better understanding human cultural evolution. Here, we present a large-scale quantitative ana...

Global analysis of mutations driving microevolution of a heterozygous diploid...
Candida albicans is a heterozygous diploid yeast that is a commensal of the human gastrointestinal tract and a prevalent opportunistic pathogen. Here, whole-genome sequencing was performed on multiple C. albicans isolates passaged both in vitro and in vivo to characterize the complete spectrum of mu...

Precursor proadrenomedullin influences cardiomyocyte survival and local infla...
Increased adrenomedullin (ADM) levels are associated with various cardiac diseases such as myocardial infarction (MI). ADM is cleaved off from the full-length precursor protein proadrenomedullin (ProADM) during its posttranslational processing. To date, no biological effect of ProADM is reported, wh...

Palmitoylation enables MAPK-dependent proteostasis of axon survival factors [...
Axon degeneration is a prominent event in many neurodegenerative disorders. Axon injury stimulates an intrinsic self-destruction program that culminates in activation of the prodegeneration factor SARM1 and local dismantling of damaged axon segments. In healthy axons, SARM1 activity is restrained by...

Early postnatal behavioral, cellular, and molecular changes in models of Hunt...
Huntington disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder caused by expanded CAG repeats in the huntingtin gene (HTT). Although mutant HTT is expressed during embryonic development and throughout life, clinical HD usually manifests later in adulthood. A number of studies document n...

Absorption by water increases fluorescence image contrast of biological tissu...
Recent technology developments have expanded the wavelength window for biological fluorescence imaging into the shortwave infrared. We show here a mechanistic understanding of how drastic changes in fluorescence imaging contrast can arise from slight changes of imaging wavelength in the shortwave in...

Protein evolution speed depends on its stability and abundance and on chapero...
Proteins evolve at different rates. What drives the speed of protein sequence changes? Two main factors are a protein?s folding stability and aggregation propensity. By combining the hydrophobic?polar (HP) model with the Zwanzig?Szabo?Bagchi rate theory, we find that: (i) Adaptation is strongly acce...

Fear extinction reverses dendritic spine formation induced by fear conditioni...
Fear conditioning-induced behavioral responses can be extinguished after fear extinction. While fear extinction is generally thought to be a form of new learning, several lines of evidence suggest that neuronal changes associated with fear conditioning could be reversed after fear extinction. To bet...

Neurobehavioral correlates of obesity are largely heritable [Neuroscience]
Recent molecular genetic studies have shown that the majority of genes associated with obesity are expressed in the central nervous system. Obesity has also been associated with neurobehavioral factors such as brain morphology, cognitive performance, and personality. Here, we tested whether these ne...

Multidimensional comparison of countries’ adaptation to societal aging...
As long-term changes in life expectancy and fertility drive the emergence of aging societies across the globe, individual countries vary widely in the development of age-relevant policies and programs. While failure to adapt to the demographic transformation carries not only important financial risk...

Exposure to opposing views on social media can increase political polarizatio...
There is mounting concern that social media sites contribute to political polarization by creating ?echo chambers? that insulate people from opposing views about current events. We surveyed a large sample of Democrats and Republicans who visit Twitter at least three times each week about a range of ...

The impact of exposure to air pollution on cognitive performance [Sustainabil...
This paper examines the effect of both cumulative and transitory exposures to air pollution for the same individuals over time on cognitive performance by matching a nationally representative longitudinal survey and air quality data in China according to the exact time and geographic locations of th...

No evidence of cryptic bycatch causing New Zealand sea lion population declin...
In PNAS, Meyer et al. (1) analyze whether exclusion devices in trawl nets contributed to New Zealand sea lion (NZSL; Phocarctos hookeri) population decline at the Auckland Islands. We refute the primary conclusion from their correlative assessment: that annual pup production changes (as a measure of...

Morphological intelligence counters foot slipping in the desert locust and dy...
During dynamic terrestrial locomotion, animals use complex multifunctional feet to extract friction from the environment. However, whether roboticists assume sufficient surface friction for locomotion or actively compensate for slipping, they use relatively simple point-contact feet. We seek to unde...

Viral genetic diversity and protective efficacy of a tetravalent dengue vacci...
Two phase 3 placebo-controlled trials of the CYD-TDV vaccine, evaluated in children aged 2?14 y (CYD14) and 9?16 y (CYD15), demonstrated vaccine efficacy (VE) of 56.5% and 60.8%, respectively, against symptomatic virologically confirmed dengue (VCD). Sieve analyses were conducted to evaluate whether...

Genotype-targeted local therapy of glioma [Applied Biological Sciences]
Aggressive neurosurgical resection to achieve sustained local control is essential for prolonging survival in patients with lower-grade glioma. However, progression in many of these patients is characterized by local regrowth. Most lower-grade gliomas harbor isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) or IDH2...

Evolutionary history of human Plasmodium vivax revealed by genome-wide analys...
Wild-living African apes are endemically infected with parasites that are closely related to human Plasmodium vivax, a leading cause of malaria outside Africa. This finding suggests that the origin of P. vivax was in Africa, even though the parasite is now rare in humans there. To elucidate the emer...

Chance, long tails, and inference in a non-Gaussian, Bayesian theory of vocal...
Traditional theories of sensorimotor learning posit that animals use sensory error signals to find the optimal motor command in the face of Gaussian sensory and motor noise. However, most such theories cannot explain common behavioral observations, for example, that smaller sensory errors are more r...

Multidecadally resolved polarity oscillations during a geomagnetic excursion ...
Polarity reversals of the geomagnetic field have occurred through billions of years of Earth history and were first revealed in the early 20th century. Almost a century later, details of transitional field behavior during geomagnetic reversals and excursions remain poorly known. Here, we present a m...

Tunable stacking fault energies by tailoring local chemical order in CrCoNi m...
High-entropy alloys (HEAs) are an intriguing new class of metallic materials due to their unique mechanical behavior. Achieving a detailed understanding of structure?property relationships in these materials has been challenged by the compositional disorder that underlies their unique mechanical beh...

Monitoring food preference in Drosophila by oligonucleotide tagging [Neurosci...
Drosophila melanogaster is a powerful model organism for dissecting the neurogenetic basis of appetitive and aversive behaviors. However, some methods used to assay food preference require or cause starvation. This can be problematic for fly ethanol research because it can be difficult to dissociate...

Status-quo management of marine recreational fisheries undermines angler welf...
Recreational fisheries can have a significant impact on fish populations and can suffer from the same symptoms of open access as commercial fisheries. However, recreational fisheries receive little attention compared with their commercial counterparts. Regulations designed to allocate scarce fish, s...